Rule Machine is the most powerful built-in tool for creating custom automations in Hubitat Elevation.
- 1 Creating a new Rule
- 2 Anatomy of a rule
- 3 Rule options
- 4 Special Actions
- 5 Special Features
- 6 Frequently asked questions
- 7 Capabilities and Actions
Creating a new Rule
- Navigate to the hub interface, then click Apps in the sidebar.
- Find Rule Machine in the list, and click/tap it to open. (Install Rule Machine with Add Built-In App first if you have not already.)
- Choose Create New Rule, then follow the prompts to provide a name for your rule. This is how it will appear in the Apps list and in logs.
- Specify triggers, actions, and other components you need to make your rule work as intended, as described below.
Anatomy of a rule
Rules consist of up to three parts:
- Trigger events: When any of the trigger events happen, the "Actions to Run" will begin executing.
- Required expression: (optional) If used, the rule will not trigger unless the expression evaluates to true at the moment of the trigger event.
- Actions to run: A list of actions to run when the rule is triggered — for example, turning on lights, changing a mode, or running just about any command on any device.
Each rule can have one or more trigger events specified. Events are generated by devices in your system or by your hub itself. Examples of trigger events include "Motion sensor X is active" or "Time is 8:00 PM". Rules will listen for trigger events and run the "Actions to Run" when any trigger event happens (except in some cases when a required expression is used, as described below).
To specify a trigger event, open the Select Trigger Events page by clicking or tapping on the Select Trigger Events box. Then, choose the "capability" that matches the kind of trigger event you want to add. For example, to trigger on "motion active," choose the "Motion" capability. To trigger on a switch (including a bulb or dimmer) turning on or off, choose "Switch." See the List of Trigger Event Capabilities section below for a complete list of capabilities and the attributes or events they correspond to.
Enabling the Use required expression option allows you to define an expression (a single condition or any combination of conditions) that must evaluate to true in order for the rule to trigger. If the required expression evaluates to false at the moment when the rule is triggered, the rule will not actually trigger, and the specified actions will not run.
One possible use for required expressions is to trigger only on specific state changes. For example, if you want a rule to trigger only on a specific mode change — say, Away mode to Home mode — then a required expression is an easy way to make that happen:
Trigger events: Mode becomes Home
Required expression: Mode is Away
Without the required expression, this rule would trigger any time mode becomes Home, regardless of the previous mode.
Another possible use for a required expression is to restrict the execution of actions under certain conditions (though this can generally also be done with conditional actions in "Actions to Run"; see below for more).
NOTE: Almost any condition can be used to create a required expression. However, it is recommended to avoid local variables in conditions used to create required epxression (they do not generate events and thus the required expression will not be re-evaluated when it changes). Hub variables and Private Boolean will work without caveats.
Actions to run
This is where you define what happens when the rule is is run. To add an action, first choose the appropriate category for the action under Select Action Type to add. Then, choose the specific action under Select Which Action. See the List of Actions section below for a complete list of where to find any particular action in this menu structure. Most actions run a command on a device. For example, Set Dimmers and Bulbs > Set dimmer can be used to set the level (brightness) on a dimmer or bulb. Under the hood, this calls the "Set Level" command on the device, but you do not need to know this; Rule Machine handles running commands on devices as needed based on your selections here.
Actions to run are essentially an ordered script. You can add as many actions as you need in whatever order you want. Note that some "special" action lines like
IF (expression) THEN and
Repeat have specific formats that must be followed; see below for more details on these.
Actions can be modified with the Edit Action or Delete Actions drop-downs. (Edit Actions can be used for minor changes, like replacing one device with another or changing a specified value. To completely replace one type of action with another, you will need to delete the action and insert a new one at the desired location.) Insert Action Before will allow you to choose a specific location to insert a new action; by default, new actions will be added to the end of the list.
The Cut Action, Copy Action, and Paste Action Before drop-downs can be used to cut, copy, and insert actions in typical "clipboard" fashion. Cut or copied actions can be shared to another rule by using the Import Clipboard From drop-down in another rule when at least one other rule has actions on the clipboard.
- Each rule has options for Logging:
- Events: logs any time a trigger event happens. The log entry will contain the name of the rule and a description of the event (e.g., "My Rule event: Side Door Lock unlocked)
- Triggers: logs any time the rule was triggered (e.g., "My Rule Triggered")
- Actions: writes a log immediately before each action in the rule is run (or also if it was skipped — for example, because it is inside a conditional action that evaluated to false)
All log entries will appear in "Logs," accessible from the sidebar. These options can be useful for troubleshooting.
- Display current values: if enabled, the current value for any selected device attributes, variables, etc. will be displayed next to the device the list of trigger events and actions to run. These values will also be displayed with the actions in "Logs" if action logging is enabled.
- Run Actions button: will run the Actions to Run section (effectively a way to manually trigger a rule)
- Update Rule button: re-initializes rule like Done but without leaving the rule editor page
- Remove button: removes this rule. Note that the Remove button inside a rule removes only that rule; the Remove Rule Machine button inside the "parent" Rule Machine app will remove Rule Machine and all rules.
- Done button: re-initializes rule (updates trigger event subscriptions; cancels any timers/scheduled jobs), then returns to the Apps list page. (Note that changes inside the "Select Actions to Run" page are saved as they are made and do not require use of this button.)
Most Rule Machine actions run commands on devices. For example, Control Switches, Push Buttons > Turn switches on/off will send an "On" or "Off" command to the selected device(s), depending on the options chosen. Toggle switches will turn the switch (or dimmer, bulb, etc.) off it it is on or on of it is off. However, Rule Machine also contains various types of special actions, like delays and repeats.
Rule Machine has two types of delays. A delay can be added as a special type of action under Delay, Wait, Exit or Comment > Delay Actions (or Delay Actions Per Mode to specify a different delay for each mode). This causes the actions to effectively pause at the delay, wait for the specified amount of time, then resume with the next action when the time is up.
Alternatively, with most actions, a delay option can be specified on the action itself. To do this, select an option from the Delay? drop-down when creating or editing the action. Choose hrs:min:sec to specify a specific amount of time, or choose variable to use a local or hub variable (must be of type number or decimal).
For any delay, the Cancelable? option may be selected. By default, a rule being re-triggered (or the rule actions running again for any reason) does not cancel previously scheduled delays. Choosing the Cancelable option allows the delay to be cancelled with the Cancel Delayed Actions action elsewhere in the same rule.
Rule Machine offers two types of waits under Delay, Wait, Exit or Comment: the Wait for Events action and the Wait for Expression action.
Wait for Events
Wait for Events allows you to specify one or more events. The rule will effectively pause at this point and wait for one of the specified event(s) to fire. When any of the specified events happen, the rule will proceed with the next action.
To add more than one event to wait for, press Add another Wait Event after adding the first (or any subsequent) event. When you are finished with everything, press Done with Wait Events to return to the previous page to add or edit other actions.
The Timeout? option allows you to specify an amount of time after which the rule will proceed with the next action in case none of the specified event(s) happen.
Wait for Expression
Wait for Expression allows you to specify a condition or combination of conditions (i.e., an expression). If the expression is true when this wait is reached, the rule will immediately proceed with the next action (unless a duration is required; see below). If it is false, the rule will effectively pause at this point and wait for the expression to become true.
The Timeout? option allows you to specify an amount of time after which the rule will proceed with the next action in case the specified expression does not become true before that amount of time passes. The Use Duration? option allows you to specify a Duration, an amount of time for which the expression must remain true in order for rule to proceed to the next action. If a duration is specified and the action becomes (or is) true for some amount of time less than the duration and then becomes false again, the wait will start over.
Cancellation of Waits
Any type of "Wait" action is cancelled upon re-triggering of a rule. (The Cancel Rule Timers action will also cancel waits but is rarely necessary, and it affects all rule timers ,as described elsewhere.) Note that this behavior differs from delays, which must be explicitly cancelled.
Exit Rule stops the execution of rule actions past the Exit Rule action itself. Note that it does not cancel any repeats, delays, waits, or other scheduled actions.
This action is generally most useful if used as part of a conditional action. For example:
IF (Mode is Night) THEN Exit Rule END-IF (remaining actions to run only in modes besides Night...)
This action has no effect; it simply allows you to write a "comment" at that location in your rule actions that will display in the editor (this could be helpful if you want to document for yourself why you are using certain actions at that point in the rule).
Rule Machine offers two types of repeat: Repeat Actions and Repeat While Expression.
A block of repeats starts with a
Repeat action (under Repeat Actions > Repeat Actions in the action selectors) and ends with an
END-REP action (under Repeat Actions > END-REP in the action selectors, or the END-REP button that will appear when editing inside a repeat).
A repeat must be specified with a repeat interval (under Repeat every...). This is the duration the rule will wait after starting one repetition of the actions between the
END-REP before starting the next repetition.
A repeat may use the Repeat n times (or Repeat variable n times) option. However, without the use of this option, you will likely want to ensure you have some way to stop the repeat; see below.
A repeat may also use the Stoppable action. This enables the Stop repeating actions action to stop this repeat (without this option selected, the repeat will not be affected by use of this action).
Here is an example rule actions that, if triggered on "Contact sensor is opened," will send a notification immediately and every 5 minutes afterwards until the contact sensor is closed:
Repeat every 0:05:00 (stoppable) IF (Contact Sensor is closed) THEN Stop Repeating Actions ELSE Send "Contact sensor is open!" TO notification device END-IF END-REP
For more examples examples of repeats, see this post: https://community.hubitat.com/t/how-to-get-repeated-notifications-using-rule-machine/19652
Repeat While Expression
The Repeat Actions > Repeat While Expression action works similarly to the above in terms of repeat interval. However, it provides an easier way to exit the repeat if you only want to repeat under certain conditions. For example, the above could be re-written as:
While (Contact sensor is open) Repeat every 0:05:00 Send "Contact sensor is open!" TO notification device END-REP
The Repeat n times (or Repeat variable n times) option may also be applied to this type of repeat. The repeat will end when either the specified expression becomes false or the number of times has been reached, whichever comes first.
- Local variables: each rule supports the creation of local variables. As their name suggests, they are available for use only in the same rule (not other rules or apps).
- Note: Hub variables are also available for use in Rule Machine (and many other apps); they are similar in possbible uses except that they can be shared among multiple rules/apps rather than just within the rule in which they are created.
- Private Boolean: a Boolean (true/false) variable built in to each rule, which can be modified by either the rule itself or (unlike a "full" local variable) other rules. It is simply a place to store a value and does not do anything on its own, though you can use it as part of expressions to create the desired effect.
Frequently asked questions
Why didn't my rule run?
Try enabling logging as described in the Rule Options section. Then, use "Logs" in the sidebar to see what, if anything, your rule did and when. (Note that you'll need to use the "Past Logs" option on this page unless you had "Current Logs" open at the time the log entry was generated.) Sometimes, you will find that your rule, in fact, did excecute as expected, but a device may not have responded as intended. This will help you begin troubleshooting. The "Display current values" may also be helpful to have enabled if you have conditional actions or may otherwise care about the value of conditions/expressions, variables, and other states during execution.
Additionally, ensure your rule was created correctly. For example, without trigger events, rule actions will never execute unless run from another rule or app (or run manually from the rule page itself).
Why can't I use "AND" in the list of trigger events?
Triggers represent events, which are an instant in time — for example, motion becoming active, a switch turning on, or the time becoming 8:30 PM. If you want to check a state rather than respond to a specific event, you can do so in the actions (using a conditional actions), or you can use a required expression to restrict triggering when a certain condition or combination of conditions is not true.
Need more help?
The Hubitat Community is a great place to ask questions and share ideas with fellow users.
Capabilities and Actions
Below is a complete list of trigger event capabilities (on the "Select Trigger Events" page) and available actions (on the "Actions to Run") page, which can be useful to consult if you are not sure where to find something or what capability to choose for a specific event.
List of Trigger Event Capabilities
The following is a list of capabilities found on the "Select Trigger Events" page and the attribute or event that the trigger can listen for. Most of these capabilities can also be used to create conditions and expressions in rules as well.
|Capability||Description (attribute, event, etc.)|
|Acceleration:||active / inactive|
|Between two dates:||starting month on this date / ending month on this date|
|Button:||pressed / held / doubleTapped / released|
|Certain Time:||at a certain time, including sunrise / sunset with offset|
|Cloud End Point:||trigger with HTTP GET on generated cloud URL|
|Contact:||open / closed|
|Custom attribute:||device capability|
|Days of Week:||on certain days of the week|
|Door:||open, closed, opening, closing, unknown|
|Garage door:||open, closed, opening, closing, unknown|
|HSM alert:||intrusion, intrusion-delay, intrusion-home, intrusion-home-delay, intrusion-night, cancelRuleAlerts, intrusion-night-delay,|
|smoke, water, rule, arming, armingHome, armingNight, cancel|
|HSM status:||armed away, armed home, armed night, delayed arming home, delayed arming night, delayed arming away, disarmed, all disarmed|
|Last Event Device||select device and attribute|
|Local End Point:||trigger with HTTP GET on generated local URL|
|Lock:||locked / unlocked|
|Mode:||any of your hub's modes|
|Motion:||active / inactive|
|Music player:||playing, paused, stopped|
|Periodic:||allows periodic schedules for minutes, hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or yearly|
|Physical dimmer level:||value|
|Physical switch:||on / off|
|Power source:||mains / battery|
|Presence:||present / not present or arrives / leaves|
|Private Boolean:||true / false|
|Smoke detector:||clear, detected, tested|
|Switch:||on / off|
|Thermostat cool setpoint:||value|
|Thermostat fan mode:||value|
|Thermostat heat setpoint:||value|
|Thermostat mode:||heat / cool / auto / off / emergency heat|
|Thermostat state:||heating / cooling / fan only / idle / pending heat / pending cool|
|Time of day:||specific time / sunrise / sunset|
|Water sensor:||dry / wet|
List of Actions
The following is a list of the actions available on the "Select Actions to Run" page. This can be helpful to consult if you are unsure where to find a specific action in the menus.
|Select Action Type to Add||Select Which Action|
|Conditional Actions||IF (expression) THEN
ELSE-IF (expression) THEN ELSE END-IF Simple Conditional Action
|Control Switches, Push Buttons||Turn switches on/off
Toggle switches Flash switches Set switches per mode Push button Push button per mode
|Set Dimmers and Bulbs||Set dimmer
Toggle dimmer Adjust dimmer Set dimmer per mode Fade dimmer over time Stop dimmer fade Start raising/lowering dimmer Stop changing dimmer Set color Toggle color Set color per mode Set color temperature Toggle color temperature Set color temperature per mode Change color temperature over time Stop changing color temperature
|Activate Scenes, Adjust Shades or Fans||Activate scenes
Activate scenes per mode Open/Close shades/blinds Set shade/blind position Set fan speed Cycle fans
|Control HSM, Garage Doors, Locks, or Valves||Arm/Disarm Hubitat® Safety Monitor
Open/Close garage door Lock/Unlock locks Open/Close valves
|Control Thermostats or Thermostat Scheduler||Set thermostats
Set Thermostat Scheduler
|Send, Speak, or Log a Message, Send HTTP Request||Send/Speak a Message
Log a Message Send HTTP Get Send HTTP Post Ping IP address
|Control Music Player, Volume, Sounds||Control Music Player
Set Volume Mute/Unmute Sound Tone Sound Chime Control Siren
|Set Variable, Mode or File, Run Custom Action||Set Variable
Set Mode Run Custom Action Write to local file Append to local file Delete local file
|Set Private Boolean, Run/Cancel/Pause Rules||Set Private Booleans
Run Rule Actions Cancel Rule Timers Pause/Resume Rules
|Capture/Restore, Device Refresh or Polling||Capture Devices
Restore Devices Refresh devices Poll devices Disable/Enable devices Start/Stop Z-Wave Polling
|Repeat actions||Repeat Actions
Repeat While Expression END-REP Repeat Until Expression Stop Repeating Actions
|Delay, Wait, Exit or Comment||Delay Actions
Delay Actions Per Mode Cancel Delayed Actions Wait for Events Wait for Expression Exit Rule Comment